The new southern-hemisphere economies are finding that the climb up from below the poverty line to even the lower-middle class is a slow process. And just as in the East European bloc, the free market can make things worse before better. This hasn’t weakened government commitment, but populist pressures can fan support for terrorist guerrilla groups bent on destroying nascent capitalism.
Then there’s the drug factor. The cocaine trade is still an economic linchpin in the region. The cocaine drug lords are the government in much of
Multinational kidnap coverage for executives serving in
But Haenn has seen steady growth in demand for AIG’s policies. That’s because terrorism in
But free-market thinking is gaining strength and powerful adherents. Across
The most dangerous part of the world for an American in 1987 was
THE MARIGHELLA CONNECTION
One of [Che] Guevara’s admirers, a Brazilian Communist named Carlos Marighella, came, in 1967, to the reluctant conclusion that there was a fatal flaw in Che’s operational plan. Although agreeing with Guevara that rural guerrilla warfare of the sort that he had just declared on
In 1969, shortly before his death in a shoot-out on a Sao Paulo street, Marighella published his Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla…Today, twenty-one years after its publication, copies of the Minimanual are still to be found in terrorist safe houses from Toronto to Santiago…One of Marighella’s recommendations has been especially honored in the observance: “Kidnapping American personalities who live in Brazil, or who have come to visit here, is a most important form of protest against the penetration of U.S. imperialism into our country.”
The second of
The third of these groups is the People’s Liberation Army (EPL), which was formed in 1967 as the military wing of the Maoist Colombian Communist Party/MarxistLeninist. Its strength is estimated at between 750 and 1,000, and its area of operations is the high country west of
The youngest, and in many ways the most interesting of the four Colombian guerrilla organizations, is the April 19 Movement, usually known as M-19. It was founded in 1974 by a group of doctors, lawyers, and military officers as the armed wing of a political party headed by a former dictator, and was given its name from the date of an election that the general lost. In 1979, defectors from FARC took M-19 over and turned it into a guerrilla movement. M-19′s strength is now estimated at about 1,000…According to documents captured by Colombian police in August 1988, M-19 was working on an ambitious plan aimed at seizing and holding territory in the southwest, northwest, and central areas of Colombia, and finally taking Bogota by 1990. But after clashes with Colombian army units, M-19 accepted a government amnesty.
IS HOT CHILE
There is no reason to suppose that the guerrillas will quietly fold their tents and fade away now that the Chilean military dictatorship has ended. Power for themselves is what they want, and opposition to Pinochet was only a pretext. The coalition of center and left parties that now runs
General Augusto Pinochet, president of Chile, had spent the weekend of 6 and 7 September 1986 with his young grandson at a fortified Andean retreat called El MelocotÃ³n, and was returning to Santiago in a three-ton armored vehicle, preceded by three escort vehicles and followed by one backup car. At a place called
The window glass in Pinochet’s car shattered, but he pushed his grandson to the floor and covered him with his own body, suffering only a slight injury. Evidently the car’s body armor performed as advertised. Other cars in the motorcade suffered more damage. The lead car blew up, and five of Pinochet’s bodyguards died….
The guerrillas left the scene in cars disguised as vehicles belonging to the bodyguard force, complete with sirens and roof lights. On their way they encountered some military vehicles coming to the rescue in response to a radioed call for help. Deceived by the sirens and roof lights, the soldiers saluted the guerrillas and made way for them.
THE SHINING PATH IS DEADLY
Dangerous as the Chilean and Colombian guerrillas are, they are surpassed by the Peruvian Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), which the U.S. State Department ranked in its Patterns of Global Terrorism:1988 as the “most dangerous and unpredictable terrorist and insurgency group in
Shining Path was formed in the late 1960s by Professor Abimael Guzman Reynoso as a pro-Indian organization with a Maoist ideology, and began operations in 1980 by blowing up electric power pylons with dynamite sticks stolen from a mining company. In the ensuing eight years its militants killed up to 11,000 people and caused about five billion dollars worth of damage. They are believed to number fewer than 5,000.
Although originally a rural guerrilla group, Shining Path has become increasingly active in the cities. Its
Hoping to nudge the revolution in a more favorable direction, some students accepted Cuban help in 1983 to form an urban guerrilla group called Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA). Most estimates agree they number about 500. MRTA militants have machine-gunned the
Kidnapping is commonplace in
Texaco’s production director, Kenneth Bishop, was kidnapped in much the same way and in the same area in March 1983, the main difference being that the two bodyguards accompanying him were shot dead. He was released five weeks later, after payment of what family sources said was a ransom of several hundred thousand dollars. Texaco declined comment.
In true pirate fashion, the M-19 in 1981 kidnapped the daughter of one of
FARC, too, has gotten into the narcotics business. In July 1988, the Colombian Army discovered a huge cocaine production and distribution complex in the jungle near the Venezuelan border, operated by the FARC “general staff.” Records showed that the complex sent a daily shipment of one and one-half tons of pure cocaine to
The Colombian guerrilla organizations mostly see eye-to-eye with one another in ideological matters, and so are generally willing to cooperate, not only in sharing the take from narcotics traffic, but in their military activities as well….The two Peruvian guerrilla groups, Shining Path and Tupac Amaru, do not see eye-to-eye ideologically. Instead of joining forces and coming to an amicable agreement with the coca growers in the upper
Here is more food for thought. Suppose the urban gangs that are now killing each other in
Ramon Milian Rodriguez, in his testimony before a Senate investigating committee, warned against this possibility, and he is one whose warnings should be taken seriously. Before his conviction for money-laundering, he was a trusted adviser to the Medellin cartel…[Alsol according to his testimony, he handed the cocaine barons a copy of Carlos Marighella’s Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla and told them to know their enemy. n
Theodore G. Shackley, former C.I.A. associate deputy director of operations, is CEO of Research Associates International, and with his colleagues R.A. Finney and R.L. Oatman, specializes in threat assessment and international executive protection. For security reasons, the authors declined to be photographed